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Another way of thinking about how the world has changed is to consider the dichotomy between content and context. Had you asked me a decade ago about how we might preserve newspapers (a term that seems so old-fashioned now) in the digital age, I would have said that we need to have stewardship institutions ingest the content databases, including the revision histories of the content. Today, depending on “who” (individually and demographically) a news Web site thinks you are, and your history with the site, it will customize a set of featured articles; this is the end of a long, technologically enabled evolution that starts with early/late and regional editions. So context of the interaction is now critical. It often doesn’t matter much if some bit of content is in the database, but only a minuscule fraction of the site’s visitors see it, and perhaps only if they specifically search for it. It’s the highly visible materials that have the most social impact.

Here are a few popularly discussed (and far from exhaustive) examples of ways in which the pervasive “Age of Algorithms” is now upon us:

An additional area that’s slightly different in character from the examples above has moved into prominence in recent months: understanding of the role of information warfare in the 2016 election and in other elections around the world in recent years. Here, it’s clear that we need to better understand both the vulnerabilities of existing social media platforms (, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and the roles and functions of algorithmically driven aggressors (botnets) as well as networks of human actors in delivering messages to users of these platforms [ 11 ].

It’s important to recognize that many of these algorithmic outcomes do not rise to the level of regulatory or policy scrutiny (at least at the U.S. federal or, occasionally, state levels), or they do so only in very specific, blatant or extreme cases [ 12 ]. Some of the examples above are clearly very high stakes situations; others are not. Poor or skewed movie recommendations from Netflix, or a bad book suggestion from Amazon, or an annoying entry in a Facebook feed probably isn’t very important, though we have learned that huge numbers of individually low-stakes decisions can add up to very societally serious results, as the 2016 U.S. presidential election has made clear [ 13 ], when compared to systematic gender or racial bias in recommended trial sentences, loan approvals, or medical diagnoses. Various forms of price discrimination, frequently driven by ever-more-detailed information about individual consumers, are now regarded as effective and laudable business practice (Shapiro and Varian, 1999; Useem, 2017) if they are conducted appropriately [ amazon online countdown package cheap price Bottega Veneta Intrecciato espadrilles low price fee shipping sale online discount pay with visa s9XV5ey
]. Nevertheless, understanding and documenting such personalized and targeted system behaviors might be of real interest to consumers and consumer advocacy groups in the present, and certainly to scholars in the future (even if there’s nothing legally very questionable about them) for the insight that they give into behaviors of the population and the way opinion is shaped and choices are made.

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pronoun

1 A thing that is unspecified or unknown.

2 Used in various expressions indicating that a description or amount being stated is not exact.

1 informal as submodifier Used for emphasis with a following adjective functioning as an adverb.

2 archaic, dialect as submodifier To some extent; somewhat.

Phrases

or something

informal Added as a reference to an unspecified alternative similar to the thing mentioned.

quite (or really) something

informal Something considered impressive or notable.

something else

informal An exceptional person or thing.

something like

1 An amount in the region of.

2 Rather like.

something of

To some degree.

there is something in —

— is worth considering; there is some truth in —

twenty-something (thirty-something, forty-something, etc.)

informal An unspecified age between twenty and thirty (or thirty and forty, forty and fifty, etc.)

as noun
Origin

Old English sum thing (see some, thing).

Pronunciation

something

/ˈsʌmθɪŋ/
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Medicare facility payments at hospitals participating in Keystone Surgery, and in the entire cohort, after Keystone Surgery implementation compared to before (CI: confidence interval).

Table 5 demonstrates the adverse outcomes as well as change in payment for each operation individually, to further clarify whether specific procedures types were impacted differently by the Keystone program. The findings were similar for each procedure, with no evidence of improved outcomes or reduced payments following Keystone implementation. The relative risk for mortality (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.53), and the overall length of stay (.46 day increase, 95% CI .05-.87) increased slightly for appendectomy, and the length of stay for carotid endarterectomy increased by .17 days (95% CI .04-.31).

Table 5
Relative risks of adverse outcomes and change in total payment by procedure type, at hospitals participating in Keystone Surgery, vs non-participating controls (CI: confidence interval)
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In this study, we found that implementation of a checklist-based intervention across Michigan was not associated with improved surgical outcomes (mortality, complications, or serious complications) in Medicare patients. When stratifying by type of procedure, including a spectrum of low- and high-risk operations, there was still no evidence of improvement in outcomes. In addition, we found no evidence that the program decreased resource utilization (reoperations or readmissions) or costs (Medicare payments). When compared to a national cohort of similar hospitals not participating in the program, these findings persisted.

Studies evaluating the effectiveness of surgical checklists are mixed. While numerous studies have reported significant improvements in surgical outcomes and safety culture following surgical checklist implementation,( 1 , 2 , 4 - HiTec Ox Belmont Low Mens Boots free shipping marketable cheap low price buy cheap footlocker finishline mZ7WBmFeE
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) but have been criticized due to methodological concerns. The evaluation of mandatory checklist adoption in Ontario, Canada by Urbach and colleagues,( 9 ) for example, only evaluated outcomes 3 months following checklist implementation and included a substantial proportion of low-risk outpatient procedures. Moreover, though checklist-adoption was mandatory, the implementation strategies used to support adoption were variable.( 10 , 11 )

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